Listening to World Service I heard about what happened in Zimbabwe in 2009:

“A BBC investigation in Zimbabwe has uncovered evidence that senior people around President Robert Mugabe are benefiting from the sale of illegal diamonds. World Affairs Editor John Simpson has just returned from a visit to Marange, in eastern Zimbabwe, which contains the largest known concentration of diamonds in the world.

Until six months ago the Marange diamond fields were occupied by hundreds of illegal local diggers.
The diamonds were easy to find. They either lay on the surface or just a few feet below.
The diggers sold them to dealers in nearby town of Mutare, who smuggled them out of the country.
Then on 31 October, we were told, the government moved in.
Helicopter gunships, soldiers and police were sent to attack the illegal diggers.
At least 150 of them were killed. According to survivors we spoke to, some of them were set on by police dogs and torn apart.

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