JFK and RFK: In the Shadow of Dallas and LA


by Jim Fetzer


On June 6, 1968, after RFK won the Democratic primary in California, he was shot multiple times as he passed through the pantry of the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles. The official account maintains that he was taken out by a lone, demented gunman, Sirhan Sirhan, a Palestinian who had written, “RFK must die!”, over and over in a notebook. Like the alleged lone, demented gunman accused of assassinating his brother, JFK, however, the evidence contradicts what the government has told us, where both murders appear to have been products of conspiracies and where Sirhan Sirhan, like Lee Harvey Oswald, was the patsy in plots that involved many more.

Victory in California: RFK greets supporters in the Embassy Ballroo,, Ambassador Hotel, in Los Angeles, on June 5, 1968

In spite of efforts to convince the public otherwise, conspiracies are as American as apple pie. All that they require is the collaboration between two or more individuals to bring about an illegal end. That JFK and RFK were taken out by conspiracies should be no more in doubt than the fact of their assassinations themselves. More bullets were fired at Bobby in the pantry of the Ambassador Hotel than could have come from Sirhan Sirhan’s gun, which implies at least one more shooter. And the shot to Jack’s back was too low to have exited from this throat, which means the “magic bullet” theory cannot possibly be true. But, if there was no “magic bullet”, then there were at least six shots from three directions. Both assassinations were conspiracies.

The Ambassador Hotel

The weapon removed from Sirhan Sirhan was a small, snub-nosed .22 caliber, Iver Johnson revolver whose chamber held eight rounds, with serial number H-53725 [1]. Sirhan unloaded his weapon from in front of Bobby Kennedy. According to the autopsy performed by Dr. Thomas Noguchi, however, RFK was hit by four bullets, all of which were fired from behind at upward angles, where five other persons were also wounded by separate bullets [2] and others were removed from holes in the walls and ceiling of the pantry. But if there were as many as thirteen shots—some of which hit a ceiling panel that was behind Sirhan’s location—there is no way Sirhan could have fired them all. With more than one shooter, a conspiracy was involved [3].

The autopsy report is usually regarded as “the best evidence” about a crime of this kind. Dr. Noguchi’s medical report, which was “a perfect autopsy”, conflicted with the LAPD report, since he did not conclude that Sirhan had killed RFK [4]. The fatal shot had entered behind his right ear from about an inch and a half away, but the alleged assassin had not been closer than several feet in front of RFK. Sirhan cannot have fired the bullets that killed Kennedy. Yet his defense attorney, Grant Cooper, chose not to defend his client on the ground that the evidence did not support his guilt but argued instead for “diminished capacity” [5]. A firearms expert, DeWayne Wofler, even testified that the bullets fired at Bobby had come from an entirely different gun [6].

As it happened, a security guard named Thane Eugene Cesar had a weapon with the same caliber and was right behind Bobby when the shooting began. Remarkably, even though he admitted having drawn his gun and many witnesses reporting hearing shots from more than one weapon, no one asked to examine his gun [7]. Acoustics expert Van Praag tested an H&R 922 of the kind Cesar had and determined that an H&R 922 had been fired at the same time as Sirhan’s [8]. The indications of conspiracy extended to a couple, including a woman in a polka dot dress, who rushed away from the scene shouting, “We shot him! We shot him! We shot Kennedy!” [9] The conclusion that Sirhan was not “a lone demented assassin” is not rocket science.

Evidence of Conspiracy

William Turner and John Christian [10] have produced a powerful case indicting Cesar for the crime. Their most interesting finding is that Sirhan may have been firing blanks, which they support on the basis of witness testimony that his shots created long, visible flames, which are commonly produced by blanks, where the purpose would have been to insure that those who were in his field of fire—and who were actually responsible for killing RFK—would not be hit by one of Sirhan’s bullets. That would mean that none of the bullet holes were made by his shots and, indeed, at least one witness reported seeing yet a third shooter in the pantry, perhaps as a back-up if Cesar failed.

Moreover, there are multiple indications that the CIA may have been involved. A hypnotist named William Joseph Bryan, for example, was on the air saying the assassin was probably “mind controlled” before Sirhan had been identified as a suspect and later boasted to hookers that he worked for the CIA and had hypnotized Sirhan [11]. Sirhan’s defense attorney, moreover, had just finished representing the CIA’s contact with organized crime, Johnny Roselli, which may have been why he was so accommodating with respect to his client’s guilt [12]. Cesar had worked at Lockeed and Hughes, which have connections with the agency [13]. Even more strikingly, three very prominent CIA officials—George Joannides, David Sanches Morales, and Gordon Campbell—have all been identified as present at the Ambassador.

Bradley Ayers, for example, was an Army captain assigned to the CIA at JM/Wave in Miami from May 1962 to December 1964, who had met all three and identified them in film footage from the Ambassador [14]. Gordon Campbell, in particular, was Ayer’s case officer. But he knew them all. Similarly, Wayne Smith, who served with the State Department from 1957-1982 with JFK’s Latin American Task Force knew Morales very well [15]. When Smith viewed the same footage that Ayers had watched, he immediately recognized Morales. As he told Shane O’Sullivan, “Bobby Kennedy is assassinated [and] David Morales is there? The two things have to be related” [16]. Those IDs, however, have been disputed by some rather surprising sources.

The Cover-Up

David Talbot [17] and Jefferson Morley [18] made an effort to verify the presence of these officials by consulting friends and relatives of the three. Neither of them knew Morales, Joannidies, or Campbell and, as James Richards, an expert on the assassination, explained to me [19], they were very public in visiting the communities they visited during their inquiries. They made open about why they were there and whom they were investigating, letting everyone known that they were looking into Morales, one of the CIA’s most notorious assassins, which alarmed their target audience and filled them with fear. Under the circumstances, it’s hardly surprising their interviewees would clam up and be unforthcoming. They concluded that the evidence was not sufficient for positive identification, but their methodology was flawed.

Indeed, Ayers and Smith both confirmed the person in the film had to be Morales [20]. They were both quite emphatic. Ayers noticed his body language (his way of moving). Richards provided me a photo of Morales, which looks exactly like the Morales-look-alike at the Ambassador. I don’t even think it’s a difficult call [21], [22]. The images of the man who may be George Joannades seems to be wearing a wig. Richards also sent me a photo of Joannides, which makes it obvious why he would have been wearing a wig: the man was virtually bald! Talbot and Morley claimed to have determined that Gordon Cambell died September 19, 1962, but that is rather peculiar, because he was Ayers’ case officer from 1963-1964. The CIA specializes in fabricating documents, such as death certificates.

The LAPD was not subtle in the destruction of evidence related to the crime. It destroyed the ceiling panels and door frames from the pantry on the ludicrous ground they were “too large to fit into a card file” and burned some 2,400 photographs, including a series taken by 15-year old Scott Enyart, who was standing on a table and took three roles of film [23]. When the department created a Special Unit Senator (SUS) to look into the case, moreover, it chose two officers who had ties to the CIA and badgered witnesses who did not support the official line. One of them, Manuel Pena, had done Special Ops for the CIA and was responsible for approving SUS interviews. There is more than one way to insure that contradictory evidence does not turn up [24].

The Shadow of Dallas

David Sanchez Morales, moreover, may have also been involved in the assassination of his brother, John, on November 22, 1963. He said to friends while drinking heavily that he had been in Dallas (“We took care of that son-of-a-bitch!”) and in LA (where “We got the little bastard!”) [25]. His acknowledgement regarding JFK has since been confirmed by E. Howard Hunt, who confessed to his son, St. John, that those who were responsible for the assassination of our 35th president included LBJ, Cord Meyer, David Atlee Philips, William Harvey, and Morales [26]. Others who knew Lyndon well have also implicated him [27] [28]. If that were true, then we would expect to find multiple proofs of government involvement, which is the case.

Not even the open windows were covered and the crowd — at places eight to ten deep — was allowed to spill into the street.

There are more than 15 indications of Secret Service complicity in setting him up for the hit [29]. Two agents assigned to the limousine were left behind at Love Field. The flat-bed truck for reporters to that should have preceded the limo was cancelled. The motorcycle escort was cut down to four and was instructed not to ride ahead of the rear wheels. The open windows were not covered, the manhole covers not welded, and the crowd was allowed to spill into the street. Most strikingly, the vehicles were in the wrong order, with the Lincoln first, when it should have been in the middle. This was a blatant violation of protocol that any security expert could have detected it, which is no doubt why, when the Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB) asked for the Presidential Protection Records for other JFK motor-cades, the agency, instead of providing them, destroyed them [30].

The route was changed just days before the event and included a turn of more than 90°, in violation of Secret Service protocol. After bullets began to be fired, the driver, William Greer, pulled the limo to the left and to a halt [31]. At Parkland Hospital, agents got a bucket of water and a sponge and washed brains and blood from the crime scene [32]. The limousine was taken back to Ford and on Monday, November 25, the day of the formal state funeral, it was stripped to bare metal and rebuilt, including replacing the windshield, which had a through-and-through bullet hole in it, which several spectators had noticed at Parkland and which the Ford official who was responsible for its replacement confirmed, where the Secret Service would later produce yet a third windshield that displayed only interior cracks [33].

The “Magic Bullet”

Two wounds were widely reported on radio and television that day, a wound to the throat and a massive wound at the back of the cranium, which was caused by a shot that entered his right temple [34]. Both wounds were observed by many experienced physicians at Parkland Hospital. Charles Crenshaw, M.D., who closed JFK’s eyes before he was placed into the bronze ceremonial casket, sent me drawings of the wound to the throat and of the exit wound to the head [35]. And Malcolm Perry, M.D., who had made the incision, described the throat wound as a “wound of entry” three times during the Parkland press conference, which began at 2:30 PM [36]. The Warren Commission would cope with these problems by simply reversing the trajectories, turning the throat wound into a wound of exit and the damage to the cranium into the effect of a bullet fired from above and behind [37].

According to THE WARREN REPORT (1964), three shots were fired from the 6th floor of the Texas School Book Depository, where one missed, but two hit and killed JFK.

It’s greatest problem arose from the discovery that, of the three shots it claimed to have been fired, one had missed and injured a bystander named James Tague. The FBI and Secret Service had concluded that each of the alleged shots had hit: that JFK had been hit in the back, that Texas Governor John Connally had been hit in the back, and that JFK had been hit in the head, which killed him. But since one shot had missed, the commission had to create an alternative explanation, claiming the bullet that hit JFK in the back had passed through his neck and exited from his throat, then entered the back of Connally, shattering a rib and existing his chest, then damaging his right wrist and finally embedding itself in his left thigh, a most unlikely scenario that has come to be known as the “magic bullet” theory [38].

To make the “magic bullet” theory remotely plausible, Gerald Ford (R-MI), a member of the commission, had the description of the wound to the back changed from “his uppermost back”, which was already an exaggeration, to “the back of his neck”, which would not become known to the public until the first releases from the ARRB [39]. This was remarkable, especially since even The Warren Report (1964) had the hole in the jacket 5 3/8” below the collar and 1 1/8” to the right of its center seam and the hole in the shirt was 5 ¾” below the collar and 1 1/8” right of the seam [40]. That location corresponds to the autopsy sketch by J. Thornton Boswell, M.D., the FBI sketch by Agent James Sibert, the death certificate by Admiral George Burkley, the president’s personal physician and the reenactment photographs. A downward bullet at this location means that the throat wound and Connally’s had been caused by other shots and other shooters [41].

The Cover-Up

Michael Baden, M.D., who chaired the medical panel for the House Selection Committee on Assassinations when it reinvestigated the crime in 1977-78, said, on the 40th observance of the assassination, that if the “magic bullet” theory were false, then there had to have been at least six shots from three directions [42]. It is not only false and provably false but turns out to be anatomically impossible, since cervical vertebrae intervene [43]. David W. Mantik, M.D., Ph.D., has shown JFK was hit four times—in the throat from in front, in the back from behind, and twice in the head both from in front and behind [44]. Connally was hit at least once from the side—as he was turning to the left—and at least one shot had missed, so there were at least six shots from three directions. Baden was right for the wrong reasons.

David W. Mantik, M.D., Ph.D., took a CAT scan of a patient with chest and neck dimensions similar to JFK and found that the “magic bullet” trajectory is not even anatomically possible.

It was not easy to sort this out. In 1992, I organized a research group with the best qualified students to ever study the case. They included Robert B. Livingston, M.D., a world authority on the human brain and an expert on wound ballistics; David W. Mantik, M.D., Ph.D. who had a Ph.D. in physics and was board-certified in radiation oncology; Jack White, a legendary photo-analyst, who had testified to the HSCA and had advised Oliver Stone on “JFK”; Chuck Crenshaw, M.D., who had been present when JFK was treated and then was responsible for the care of his alleged assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, two days later; and John P. Costella, Ph.D., another Ph.D. in physics but this time with a specialization in electromagnetism, the properties of light and physics of moving objects, who focused on the physical contents of the films. We discovered that most of the evidence in this case was fake [45].

Mantik, for example, studied the autopsy X-rays using the method of optical densitometry to determine the relative density of the objects whose exposure to X-rays had created the images [46]. He found an area at the back of the head that had been “patched” using material that was too dense to be human bone and that a 6.5mm metallic slice had been added to other X-rays in an apparent effort to connect the shooting with an obscure Italian Mannlicher-Carcano that Lee Oswald was alleged to have used. Ironically, while the death certificates and the autopsy report state that JFK was killed by high-velocity bullets, the Mannlicher-Carcano only has a muzzle velocity of 2,000 fps [47] and is not high-velocity [48]. Which means the weapon that Oswald is alleged to have used cannot have fired the bullets that killed JFK.

Other Fabrications

More than forty witnesses had observed that massive defect to the back of the head, where about half his brains were blown out to the left rear. Motorcycle Patrolman Bobby Hargis was hit so hard that the thought he himself had been shot [49]. But once it had been patched, there was no place for all those brains to go, which was solved by the substitution of another brain. When Robert Livingston compared the multiple reports from Parkland of cerebellar as well as cerebral tissue extruding from the wound, he concluded that the brain that is shown in diagrams and photographs at the National Archives—the original brain is missing—could not possibly be of the brain of JFK [50].

The deception was compounded by altering the home movies of the assassination, where brains and blood were now shown bulging out to the right-front rather than blowing out the left-rear. Roderick Ryan, an expert on special effects for which he received an Academy Award in 2000, told Noel Twyman the brains and blood had been painted in [51]. This fabrication has been confirmed by the recent discovery by other Hollywood experts that the massive defect to the back of the head was painted over in black [52]. So much attention was focused on the frames around 313, where the fatal head shot was presented as having occurred, that those responsible for the deception did not notice that it remains visible in frame 374, where there is a striking correspondence between Mantik’s “patch” and its configuration [53].

In frame 374 of the Zapruder film, the blow-out to the back of his head is clearly visible, even though it was painted over and blacked out in earlier frames, such as frames 313-317.

Many steps were taken to obfuscate the evidence. The shirt and the jacket were left behind at Parkland Hospital; no transcript of the press conference was provided; the X-rays were altered; the limousine was rebuilt; the patsy was framed [54]. Due to the exceptional work of the Assassination Records Review Board, however, we now know that James Humes, M.D., performed a craniotomy at Bethesda before the autopsy officially began to enlarge the wound to the head and make it resemble the kind of damage that might have been expected to have been caused by a shot from the rear. This recent development has vindicated the work of David S. Lifton, who had postulated alteration of the body [55], which has now been confirmed by Doug Horne [56].

What it Means

The most important element of the cover-up, however, was creating a false photographic record of the assassination. Had JFK been killed in a non-public setting, no one would have believed he had not been taken out by a conspiracy. It was necessary to give as much thought to concealing the truth from the public as was given to executing the assassination itself, where the home movie known as the Zapruder film became the backbone of the cover-up [57]. Among the most important reasons for recreating the film using the original footage and the sophisticated techniques of optical printing and of special effects included removing the limo stop, which was too obvious an indication of Secret Service complicity in the assassination. There were conflicts with the film from the beginning [58]. The evidence of fabrication is overwhelming for those who study it [59] [60] and [61].

These discoveries have considerable impact on alternative theories of the assassination. The Mafia, which no doubt put up some of the shooters, could not have extended its reach into the Bethesda Naval Hospital to alter X-rays under the control of medical officers of the US Navy, Secret Service agents, and the president’s personal physician. Neither pro- nor anti-Castro Cubans could have substituted the brain of someone else for that of JFK. And even if the KGB had an ability to alter films equal to that of the CIA and Hollywood, it had no way to gain access to the Zapruder film. Nor could these things have been done by Lee Harvey Oswald, who was incarcerated or already dead.

Lee Oswald was observed immediately prior to the assassination in and around the lunchroom and was confronted there by a motorcycle police officer within 90 seconds thereafter.

The evidence that exonerate Oswald goes beyond the fact that the weapon he was alleged to have used could not have fired the bullets that killed the president. Co-workers observed him in and around the 2nd floor lunchroom at 11:50 AM, at Noon, at 12:15 PM and as late as 12:25 PM. The shooting took place at 12:30 PM. Within 90 seconds, a motorcycle officer, Marrion Baker, confronted him and held him in his sights until Roy Truly, his supervisor, assured him that he was an employee who belonged there. In their statements published in The Warren Report [62], they explain that he was acting normally was not perspiring or out of breath—except, Truly added, a bit startled as any one might be to find themselves confronted by a drawn revolver [62].

The Controversy Endures

His Russian-born wife, Marina, would observe that Lee admired JFK, which means that the man fingered for the assassination had neither the motive, the means, or the opportunity to take him out. Even if the weapon had been far better, the shots were highly improbable. Thus, the interactive internet game, “JFK: Reloaded”, which used a superior weapon with a properly aligned sight, a smooth trigger action, and no recoil and which allowed endless practice sessions before attempting to hit the target, was won by a shooter who scored only a .782 out of 1.000, which means he only scored a “C+” in attempting to replicate the shots, suggesting the shot sequence was not possible [63]. Those who wrote the script didn’t know enough about the gun to get it right.

That the simple expedient of locating where the bullet hit JFK’s back is enough to establish the existence of a conspiracy has not inhibited those who want to obfuscate the facts. Consider, for example, that a controversy over neutron activation analysis persisted for years, as if discovering that bullet fragments found in the car had come from the same lot as those used by the alleged “assassination weapon” would show the location from which they were fired or who had fired them [64]. And pseudo-documentary after pseudo-documentary has been broadcast over the major networks based upon a film whose revision makes it impossible to reconstruct what actually happened in order to persuade the public that JFK was killed by a lone, demented gunman, even though the authentic evidence refutes it [65], [66], [67] and [68].

JFK was hit four times: in the throat (from in front); in the back (from behind); and twice in the head (from behind and in front). Two shots were fired from the vicinity of the Triple Underpass.

As Martin Shotz has observed, the purpose of the disinformation op in the death of JFK is not really to convince the public of the official account but to create enough uncertainty that everything is believable and nothing is knowable [69]. The reasons are not difficult to discern for those who understand why he was taken out. He was threatening to cut the oil depletion allowance, which the Texas men regarded as their divine right. He had not invaded Cuba against the unanimous recommendation of the Joint Chiefs. He had signed an above ground test ban treaty with the Soviets against their unanimous opposition. He was removing our forces from Vietnam, where they believed that a stand had to be taken against the expansion of communism [70].

JFK’s Attorney General, was cracking down on organized crime. He was going to reform or abolish the FED and, perhaps most of all, he was going to shatter the CIA into a thousand pieces. Lyndon wanted to be president of all the people and J. Edgar Hoover wanted to stay on as Director of the FBI. No one could have explained all of this as well as has James Douglass, JFK and the Unspeakable (2008), who traces his evolution from a traditional cold warrior into a statesman for peace. The powers that benefit from the status quo could not allow those changes to occur. Once they had committed the crime, they were intent that no one should ever pay for it, lest the public learn the truth about the institutions of their own government. When Bobby let out he was going to use the full powers of the presidency to uncover the truth about his brother, it sealed his fate. And the lies continue.

Jim Fetzer is editor of assassinationscience.com and co-editor of assassinationresearch.com. This is an expanded and revised version of “JFK and RFK: The plots that killed them, the patsies that didn’t”.


[1] Shane O’Sullivan, Who Killed Bobby?, Sterling Publishing, 2008.

[2] Jim DiEugenio and Lisa Pease, eds., The Assassinations, Feral House2003.

[3] Jesse Ventura (with Dick Russell), American Conspiracies, Skyhorse Publishing, 2010.

[4] Robert Geringer, “The Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy

[5] Jim DiEugenio and Lisa Pease, eds., The Assassinations, Feral House2003.

[6] Ibid.

[7] Ibid.

[8] Jesse Ventura (with Dick Russell), American Conspiracies, Skyhorse Publishing, 2010.

[9] Jim DiEugenio and Lisa Pease, eds., The Assassinations, Feral House2003.

[10] Jonn Christian and William Turner, The Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy, Thunder’s Mouth Press, 1978.

[11] Jim DiEugenio and Lisa Pease, eds., The Assassinations, Feral House2003

[12] Ibid.

[13] Robert F. Kennedy, Sparticus Educational, google

[14] Bradley Ayers, The Zenith Secret, Vox Pop, 2006.

[15] Shane O’Sullivan, Who Killed Bobby?, Sterling Publishing, 2008.

[16] Ibid.

[17] David Talbot, Brothers: The Hidden History of the Kennedy Years, The Free Press, 2007.

[18] Mel Ayton, “Did the CIA Kill Bobby Kennedy? The BBC’s Blunder”, History News Network (27 November 2006)

[19] Personal communication. See for some of his research on those in Dealey Plaza

[20] Shane O’Sullivan, “RFK Must Die: The Assassination of Bobby Kennedy” DVD (2007)

[21] David Sanches Morales, Sparticus Educational web site, google http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKmorales.htm

[22] Bradley Ayers, Sparticus Educational web site, google

[23] Jesse Ventura (with Dick Russell), American Conspiracies, Skyhorse Publishing, 2010.

[24] Ibid.

[25] Noel Twyman, Bloody Treason, Laurel Publishing, 1997.

[26] Erik Hedegaard, “The Last Confessions of E. Howard Hunt”, rollingstone.com, April 5, 2007.

[27] Madeleine Duncan Brown, Texas in the Morning, Conservatory Press, 1997.

[28] Billy Sol Estes, A Texas Legend, BSE Productions, 2005.

[29] James H. Fetzer, ed., Murder in Dealey Plaza, Open Court, 2000, “Prologue”.

[30] Final Report of the Assassination Records Review Board, 1998.

[31] Vince Palamara et al. in Murder in Dealey Plaza, 2000.

[32] Richard Trask, Pictures of the Pain, Yeoman Press,1994.

[33] Douglas Weldon et al. in Murder in Dealey Plaza, 2000; and James H. Fetzer, ed., Assassination Science,Open Court, 1998.

[34] “NOVEMBER 22, 1963: The Kennedy Assassination”, NBC News DVD, Parts 1 and 2.

[35] Charles Crenshaw, M.D., in Murder in Dealey Plaza, 2000, Appendix A.

[36] Malcolm Perry, M.D., Ibid, Appendix C.

[37] The Warren Report, Government Printing Office, 1964.

[38] The “magic bullet” is lampooned in Oliver Stone’s film, “JFK”.

[39] “Ford Made Key Change in Kennedy Death Report”, The New York Times (3 July 1997), p. A8.

[40] The Warren Report, Government Printing Office, 1964, page 92.

[41] James H. Fetzer, “Reasoning about Assassinations”, International Journal of the Humanities 3 (2005/2006).

[42] “Beyond Conspiracy” ABC documentary, 2003 (YouTube).

[43] David W. Mantik, M.D., Ph.D., in Stewart Galanor, Cover-Up, Kestrel Book, 1998.

[44] David W. Mantik, M.D., Ph.D., et al. in Murder in Dealey Plaza, 2000.

[45] Assassination Science (1998), Murder in Dealey Plaza (2000), and The Great Zapruder Film Hoax(2003).

[46] David W. Matiik, M.D., Ph.D., in Assassination Science, 2000.

[47] As even Gerald Posner, Case Closed, Random House, 1993, Appendix A, has acknowledged.

[48] See, for example, “Bullet Trajectory: Fact and Myth“, by Mike Nelson

[49] James H. Fetzer, ed., Murder in Dealey Plaza, Open Court. 2000.

[50] Robert B. Livingston, M.D., in Assassination Science, 2003.

[51] Noel Twyman, Bloody Treason, Laurel Publishing , 1997.

[52] Douglas Horne, Inside the ARRB, Vol. IV, 2009.

[53] James H. Fetzer, “Dealey Plaza Revisited: What Happened to JFK?

[54] See, for example, Jim Fetzer and Jim Marrs, “How ‘Patsies’ are Framed: The Case of Lee Harvey Oswald”, November 20, 2009, http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=va&aid=16224

[55] David S. Lifton, Best Evidence, Macmillan, 1980.

[56] Douglas Horne, INSIDE THE ARRB, Vols. I-V, 2009.

[57] James H. Fetzer, ed., The Great Zapruder Film Hoax, Open Court, 2003. “Prologue”.

[58] See, for example, Jim Marrs, “Surveyor: More than 1 man shot Kennedy”, Fort Worth Star-Telegram (14 April 1978).

[59] John P. Costella, “The JFK Assassination Film Hoax: A Tutorial

[60] James H. Fetzer, “Zapruder JFK Film impeached by Moorman JFK Polaroid”, March 28, 2009

[61] James H. Fetzer, “US Government Official: JFK Cover-Up, Film Fabrication”, April 7, 2010

[62] The Warren Report, Government Printing Office, 1964, pages 151-152.

[63] “JFK: Reloaded

[64] Single Bullet Theory

[65] James H. Fetzer, “Distorting the Photographic Record: Death in Dealey Plaza”, in The Great Zapruder Film Hoax (2003).

[66] David W. Mantik, M.D., Ph.D., and James H. Fetzer, “Another Attempted Reenactment of the Death of JFK”, November 21, 2008, http://www.opednews.com/articles/Another-Attempted-Reenactm-by-Jim-Fetzer-081120-276.html

[67] David S. Lifton, in “Moorman in the Street Revisited”, January 2009, Appendix.

[68] James H. Fetzer, “Dealey Plaza Revisited: What Happened to JFK?”, http://www.und.edu/instruct/jfkconference/

[69] E. Martin Schotz, History will Not Absolve Us, Kurtz, Ulmer, and DeLuca Book Publishers, 1996.

[70] James Douglass, JFK and the Unspeakable: Why he Died and Why it Matters, Abis Books, 2008.

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